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Touch Down Zone Lights
Touch Down Zone Lights
Touchdown zone lights are provided in the touchdown zone of a precision approach runway category II or III.
Touchdown zone lights extend from the threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900 m, except that, on runways less than 1800 m in length, the system is shortened so that it does not extend beyond the midpoint of the runway. The pattern is formed by pairs of barrettes symmetrically located about the runway centre line. The lateral spacing between the innermost lights of a pair of barrettes are equal to the lateral spacing selected for the touchdown zone marking. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of barrettes are either 30 m or 60 m.A barrette is composed of at least three lights with a spacing between the lights of not more than 1.5 m. These are fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white in the direction of landing.


Runway Centerline Lights
Runway Centerline Lights
Runway centre line lights are provided on a precision approach runway category II or III. Runway centre line lights are located along the centre line of the runway, except that the lights may be uniformly offset to the same side of the runway centre line by not more than 60cm where it is not practicable to locate them along the centre line. The lights are located from the threshold to the end at longitudinal spacing of approximately 15m. These lights are fixed lights showing variable white from the threshold to the point 900 m from the runway end; alternate red and variable white from 900 m to 300 m from the runway end; and red from 300 m to the runway end, except that for runways less than 1800 m in length, the alternate red and variable white lights are placed from the midpoint of the runway usable for landing to 300m from the runway end.


Runway End Lights
Runway End Lights
Runway end lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing red in the direction of the runway.Runway end lights are provided for a runway equipped with runway edge lights.These are placed on a line at right angles to the runway axis as near to the end of the runway as possible and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside the end.These lights consist of at least 6 lights.For a precision approach runway category III, the spacing between runway end lights, except between the two innermost lights if a gap is used, does not exceed 6 m.
Runway End Identifier / Runway Threshold Identification Lights
Runway End Identifier / Runway Threshold Identification Lights
Runway threshold identification lights are installed:
(a) At the threshold of a non-precision approach runway when additional threshold conspicuity is necessary or where it is not practicable to provide other approach lighting aids;

(b) where a runway threshold is permanently displaced from the runway extremity or temporarily displaced from the normal position and additional threshold conspicuity is necessary.
These lights are located symmetrically about the runway centre line, in line with the threshold and approximately 10m outside each line of runway edge lights.
Runway threshold identification lights are flashing white lights with a flash frequency between 60 and 120 per minute.
The lights is be visible only in the direction of approach to the runway.
Runway Wingbar Lights
Runway Wingbar Lights
Wing bar lights are provided on a precision approach runway when additional conspicuity is considered desirable. These are provided on a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway where the threshold is displaced and runway threshold lights are required, but are not provided. Wing bar lights are symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line at the threshold in two groups, i.e. wing bars. Each wing bar is formed by at least five lights extending at least 10 m outward from, and at right angles to, the line of the runway edge lights, with the innermost light of each wing bar in the line of the runway edge lights.Runway threshold and wing bar lights are unidirectional lights showing green in the direction of approach to the runway.
Runway Threshold Lights
Runway Threshold Lights
Runway threshold lights are fixed unidirectional green lights, showing in the direction of approach, are provided for a runway equipped with runway edge lights, except on a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway where the threshold is displaced and wing bar lights are provided.
When a threshold is at the extremity of a runway, the threshold lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis as near to the extremity of the runway as possible and, in any case, not more than 3m outside the extremity. On a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway, at least six lights; On a precision approach runway category I, at least the number of lights that would be required if the lights were uniformly spaced at intervals of 3 m between the rows of runway edge lights; and On a precision approach runway category II or III, lights uniformly spaced between the rows of runway edge lights at intervals of not more than 3 m.

Aerodrome Beacon
Aerodrome Beacon
An aerodrome beacon is provided at an aerodrome
intended for use at night, if the following conditions exist:
(a) Aircraft navigate predominantly by visual means,
(b) Reduced visibilities are frequent,
c) It is difficult to locate the aerodrome from the air due to surrounding lights or terrain.
The aerodrome beacon shows either coloured flashes alternating with white flashes, or white flashes only.
At land aerodromes flashes are green. Coloured flashes emitted by beacons at water aerodromes is yellow. It has a frequency of 20-30 flashes per minute.


Fight Recorder
Fight Recorder
Black Box or Flight Recorder is an electronic recording device, generally placed in the tail portion of an aircraft (being safest place) for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of aviation accidents and incidents. It is of two types first is Flight Data Recorder (FDR) preserves the recent history of the flight through the recording of dozens of parameters (speed, time trajectory, altitude, temperature, etc) collected several times per second and has a 25hrs of recording time. The other one is Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) used for the recording of Communication among pilots and Air Traffic Controller and has 2hrs of recording time. The two devices may be combined into a single unit. Together, the FDR and CVR objectively document the aircraft's flight history, which may assist in any later investigation. It is also fitted with Underwater Locator Beacon which emits ultrasonic pulses for upto 90 days to facilitate its search in case of lost.
Right of Way for Aircraft (sign)
Right of Way for Aircraft (sign)
It is an aircraft warning sign placed at airport's vehicular lanes to alert drivers of the vehicle that they are about to enter or cross a live aircraft stand taxilane so they need to be extra vigilant or alert. All vehicles of any kind must give way to the aircraft first, stopping well in advance, clearing the route for the aircraft approaching or departing.
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