This article consists of the following sections :

  1. Phases of a Flight
  2. Some Important Speeds
  3. Conclusion

As we all know that air travel is the fastest yet the safest mode of transportation but the word fastest and safest have an inverse relation in real life, meaning we have a peculiar mind set that something being fast may indulge more risk in practicality but an aircraft defies it. How ??

Let’s find out ..

The first thing which we need to understand is the Phases of a Flight !

1. Phases of a Flight

Phases of Flight
  1. Taxi Out / Ground Operations – IT is in this phase that the aircraft is ready for flight and all the ground operations or the turn around activities are completed, clearance from the ATC is provided and the aircraft is lined up for take-off.
  2. Take-off Roll – In this stage the aircraft is ready to depart and has started rolling on the runway to gain the required speed. (V2
  3. – The speed at which the aircraft may safely climb with one engine inoperative).
  4. Rotation – This is an intermediary phase at a particular speed (Vr – different for each type of aircraft) when the aircraft has to pitch up so that the nose wheel (front wheels) may leave the ground contact.
  5. Departure – It is in this phase that the whole aircraft is in air and has achieved the lift-off speed (VLOF – different for each type of aircraft).
  6. Climb – Now the pilot tries to achieve a particular flight level determined in the flight plan for avoiding obstacles and optimum cruising of the aircraft.
  7. Cruise – In this phase an aircraft cruises at a particular speed and flight level which provides maximum efficiency to the flight.(VC)
  8. Descent – In this phase the pilot tries to bring down the aircraft to a certain altitude as guided by the ATC so that it can get the signals of Localiser and Glide path antenna or he/she can have a visual sight of the Runway.
  9. Approach – This is a continuous descent phase which is further divided into 3 parts as initial descent, middle descent and final descent, helping the aircraft to get the accurate speed to perform the touchdown.
  10. Landing Roll – The aircraft in this stage has touched down on the runway and is applying brakes to bring down the speed to taxi out of the runway.
  11. Taxi In / Ground Operations – Here the aircraft taxis to the alloted bay for further operations.

As we have discussed above, the flight phases are governed by different types of speeds which an aircraft shall possess when operating in a each particular phase, these speeds help the pilot to control the aircraft so that in case of any kind of emergency, the maneuverability of the aircraft stays in the pilots control always.

These speeds may vary for each kind of aircraft and it also varies with the aerodrome conditions (wind, atmospheric pressure, slope of runway, etc.)

2. Some Important Speeds

These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing for aircraft type-certification. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance, or both.

V1 is the critical engine failure recognition speed or takeoff decision speed. It is the speed above which the takeoff will continue even if an engine fails or another problem occurs, such as a blown tire.The speed will vary among aircraft types and varies according to factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used and runway surface contamination, thus it must be determined by the pilot before takeoff. Aborting a takeoff after V1 is strongly discouraged because the aircraft will by definition not be able to stop before the end of the runway, thus suffering a runway overrun.

3. Conclusion

The division of flight phase is to organize and establish flight requirements, according to different stages of a flight and to form corresponding flight objectives, missions, and management, so that ease of commute is maintained without compromising on safety of aircraft operation.

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